Hemp/industrial hemp and marijuana are two distinct varieties of the same plant species. Hemp is a fiber crop. Marijuana is a drug crop. However, these definitions have become confused in the last 60 years. Recently, a movement has begun to distinguish the terms again. It is important to understand the history of usage of these terms in order to eliminate the confusion.
1600-1930s Hemps Long History in North America
The word hemp has been in the English language for over 800 years. The word marijuana is only 100 years old.
From the first settling of North America until the 1930s, hemp was the most common term for Cannabis sativa fiber crops. Marijuana was never used to describe hemp fiber crops, which were grown for canvas, rope, fuel oil, and paper. Hemp fiber crops were historically low THC and completely non-psychoactive.
1930s-1940s Marijuana tax Act confuses Hemp and Marijuana
In the 1930s, the psychoactive (high-THC) variety of cannabis sativa, imported from Mexico, became common in the southern U.S. It was called marijuana, a word popularized through the Reefer Madness campaign, to distinguish it from the hemp fiber crops (which no one ever smoked).
In 1937, the passage of the Marijuana tax Act hopelessly confused the terms hemp and marijuana. For the first time, Congress defined these distinct varieties of Cannabis sativa as being the same. What had been commonly known as hemp was now marijuana.
1950s Hemp Crops Become Extinct
In 1957, the last hemp fiber crop was harvested in the U.S. Because low-THC Cannabis sativa fiber crops were now extinct, the word hemp dropped out of use and was forgotten.
1960s Marijuana Legalization Movement Begins
In the 1960s, the psychoactive variety of cannabis sativa (marijuana) became popular among the counter-culture. The movement to legalize marijuana in the 1960s and 1970s did not use the term hemp to describe marijuana.
1985 Hemp/ Marijuana Movement Begins
In 1985, the word hemp re-surfaced in the book The Emperor Wears No Clothes by Jack Herer. This book uncovered information that had been lost for almost 40 years about hemps historical uses as a fiber crop. The book also touted hemp as a solution to modern environmental problems.
Because The Emperor was targeted at a marijuana movement and since it was not widely known that low-THC varieties of hemp existed in Europe and Asia, it was believed that marijuana must be legalized to allow industrial uses of hemp. And because it was the environmentalists and the counter-culture that began promoting hemp as an alternative fiber crop, they were not taken seriously.
1989 European Farmers Grow Hemp
In Europe, some countries (like France and Spain) had never stopped producing hemp. In 1989, the European Economic Community developed rules to govern hemp production that applied to all its member countries. The EEC defined registered seed varieties for low THC hemp and methods for testing hemp for THC content.
1993-1994 England and Canada Grow Hemp
In 1993, England officially recognized the difference between hemp and marijuana, to make its farmers competitive in the EEC. In 1994, Canada, seeing competition from Europe, allowed hemp production.
1994 Kentucky Appoints Hemp Task Force
In November of 1994, the Governor of Kentucky, seeing competition from Canada and Europe, appointed a Task Force to study the commercial possibilities of hemp in his state.
1994-1995 Hemp/Industrial Hemp Movement Begins in U.S.
For the first time, farmers, manufacturers, processors, and agricultural researchers in North America began to take a serious look at hemp as an agricultural crop and alternative fiber. As well, the hemp environmentalists within the marijuana movement see that registered seed varieties exist to distinguish hemp from marijuana.
This diverse coalition begins using the word industrial hemp (or simply hemp) to refer exclusively to low-THC non-psychoactive varieties of Cannabis sativa. The goal of the industrial hemp movement is to allow legitimate production of hemp fiber crops and to explore the environmental benefits of hemp as an alternative fiber, pulp, and oil source.
Jan. 1995 Colorado Senator Introduces Hemp Legislation
In January 1995, Senator Lloyd Casey (D-Northglenn), made Colorado the first state to attempt to define hemp/industrial hemp as distinct form marijuana when he introduced the Hemp Production Act. Unfortunately, this bill was killed in Committee due to objections from the federal Drug Enforcement Administration.
Oct. 1995 North American Industrial Hemp Council Formed
In October 1995, the steering committee of the North American Industrial Hemp Council made industrial hemp an entirely distinct issue, separate from the legalization of marijuana.
Jan. 1996 Colorado and Vermont Introduce Hemp Legislation
Legislators in two states introduced industrial hemp legislation, Sen. Lloyd Casey (D) from Colorado and Rep. Fred Maslack (R) from Vermont.
Jan. 1996 Support for Hemp Grows
A strong coalition of diverse organizations now supports Industrial hemp, including:
American Farm Bureau federation (4.6 million member)
Colorado Farm Bureau
Colorado Department of Agriculture
Colorado State Grange
Kentucky Farm Bureau
Kentucky Hemp Growers Cooperative
Wisconsin Agribusiness Council
Wisconsin Department of Agriculture
International Paper Company
Bolton Emerson Americas
Colorado Environmental Coalition
Oregon Natural Resources Council
HIA (Hemp Industries Association)
North American Industrial Hemp Council
Most, if not all of these groups have specifically stated that they are opposed to the legalization of marijuana. They realize the difference between hemp/industrial hemp and marijuana and that hemp/industrial hemp can be grown safely without affecting marijuana laws, production, or use.
2014 & 2018 Farm Bills
On February 7, 2014, President Obama signed the Farm Bill of 2013 into law. Section 7606 of the act, Legitimacy of Industrial Hemp Research, defines industrial hemp as distinct from marijuana and authorizes institutions of higher education or state department’s of agriculture in states that legalized hemp cultivation to regulate and conduct research and pilot programs.
The Hemp Farming Act of 2018 was a proposed law to remove hemp (defined as cannabis with less than 0.3% THC) from Schedule I controlled substances and making it an ordinary agricultural commodity. Its provisions were incorporated in the 2018 United States farm bill that became law on December 20, 2018.
In addition to removing low-THC cannabis from regulation under the Controlled Substances Act, the 2018 act would avail hemp farmers of water rights and federal agricultural grants, and make the national banking system (in a gray area for cannabis industry) accessible to farmers and others involved; and allow for other benefits of production of a recognized crop such as marketing, agronomy research, and crop insurance.